A meal as a key to Asia. Eighty minor’s students are writing blogs about the Reistafel – a play on words in Dutch referring to travel (reis) and rice (rijst) that serves a... more
A meal as a key to Asia. Eighty minor’s students are writing blogs about the Reistafel – a play on words in Dutch referring to travel (reis) and rice (rijst) that serves as a metaphor for the political, economic, cultural and social diversity of Asia. The blog is part of the minor Journalism and New Media that trains students for a career in (cross-medial) journalism.
The Reistafel is the winner of a competition that was finalised early in September 2016. Other ideas put forward were about doing business in Asia, backpacking in Asia and integrating Chinese students in Leiden.
The Reistafel is based on an Asian meal, the rijsttafel. Students will analyse in different editorial teams all the conceivable aspects of the meal: What does it cost? What kind of diet is it? Who eats together with whom and how are they related to one another? What is the cultural-historical significance of food in different cultures?
The aim of the blog is to use the example of a meal to convey differences and similarities between Western and Eastern cultures and the way they influence one another. The communication will be cross-medial, featuring written articles and videos, data journalism and podcasts. Visit the blog here.
Envisioning Indonesia is an extraordinary walk-app that allows users to connect the cityscape of Leiden with similar places on the other side of the world: Indonesia. Download... more
Envisioning Indonesia is an extraordinary walk-app that allows users to connect the cityscape of Leiden with similar places on the other side of the world: Indonesia. Download the Walk-app:
While walking through Leiden, short clips can be activated on a mobile device as if one looks over a distant wall. The app offers two routes. The first one focuses on the landmarks of Leiden. The textile history of Leiden will be connected to moving images of a textile factory in Delanggu on Java, and the Leidense Burcht, the fortress in the city centre, will be linked to ‘Fort Oranje’ on the Moluccan Island of Ternate. The second route focuses on daily life by showing the Indonesian version of the student dormitory, a kos, and the oldest market of Jakarta in reference to the main shopping street of Leiden. All clips come from ‘Recording the Future’, an audio-visual project of KITLV recording daily life in Indonesia. ‘Envisioning Indonesia’ enables the walker to combine the business of street life in Leiden with glimpses of Indonesia, making strolling through Leiden a global experience.
11 September-31 December - Leiden University Libraries welcomes Peter Frankopan as Visiting Scaliger professor
Historian Peter Frankopan has been appointed Visiting Scaliger professor at Leiden University for 2017. The holder of this chair is affiliated both to the Sca... more
Historian Peter Frankopan has been appointed Visiting Scaliger professor at Leiden University for 2017. The holder of this chair is affiliated both to the Scaliger Institute of Leiden University Libraries and to the Faculty of Humanities. Former holders of the chair include Anthony Grafton (Princeton University) and François Déroche (Collège de France). Frankopan is Director of the Oxford Centre for Byzantine Research.
Dr. Peter Frankopan is a historian at the University of Oxford, where he is Senior Research Fellow at Worcester College, Director of the Oxford Centre for Byzantine Research and a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society. He works on the history of the Mediterranean, Russia, the Middle East, Persia Central Asia and beyond, and on relations between Christianity and Islam. He also specializes in medieval Greek literature. He is the author of The First Crusade: the call from the East (2012) which Times Literary Supplement called 'The most significant contribution to re-thinking the origins and causes of the First Crusade for a generation', and of The Silk Roads: A New History of the World (2016), an international bestseller, described by William Dalrymple as a ‘historical epic of dazzling range, ambition and achievement’.
Teaching, Research and Keynote speech
As Visiting Scaliger professor, Dr. Frankopan will stay at Leiden University in September and December 2017 and will be engaged with teaching and research. On 14 September Dr. Frankopan will deliver the keynote speech on Asia and the making of the Modern World in the Pieterskerk on the occasion of the grand opening of Leiden University’s Asian Library.
The Scaliger Institute, founded in 2000, promotes teaching and research that uses the Special Collections held at Leiden University Libraries. Since its inception the Institute has received more than 270 fellows and has organized symposia, masterclasses, and special lecture series. The Institute takes its name from Josephus Justus Scaliger (1540-1609), the best known Leiden academic in the early years of the university. Scaliger was also a patron of the University Library.
For whom This course is open to anyone over the age of 16. No prior experience is needed in order to participate. It consists of 10 classes. Content... more
This course is open to anyone over the age of 16. No prior experience is needed in order to participate. It consists of 10 classes.
The oldest known annals of Chinese history were written in calligraphy. Chinese calligraphy is thus as old as the Chinese writing system. Calligraphy is an important part of China's cultural heritage and is seen as one of the most important art forms. Due to the spread of China's influence in the world, Chinese calligraphy is now part of other country's cultures as well, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. In 2009, UNESCO included Chinese calligraphy in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The tools calligraphers use, define Chine calligraphy as an art. The 'Four Treasures' of Calligraphy are: the paintbrush, ink, paper, and inkstone. With these tools, you'll gradually learn the basic techniques and rools of Chinese calligraphy, which you will use both in class and at home while practicing. Apart from being an art form, Chinese calligraphy is also a form of meditation, soothing the mind and spirit.
Cara Yuan, an experienced and enthusiastic teacher, is an established Chinese calligrapher. Her work was already exhibited in China and Japan before she had reached the age of 20. Due to her vast experience in teaching Chinese calligraphy, Cara Yuan will create a comfortable atmosphere in which you can learn the ins and outs of this art. All participants will get personal assistance and the opportunity to fulfill their own wishes within this course.
Cara Yuan was born and raised in China. Her father is an artist, specialized in Chinese painting. Her grandfather was a Chinese calligrapher. In 1998, Cara moved to the Netherlands to study at the Amsterdam University of the Arts and become a teacher. She has been teaching Chinese calligraphy since 1999.
Anyone who registers for a LAK course, thereby agrees to the LAK term and conditions.
In the China Seminar/Lecture series every three weeks, Leiden University Chinese Studies invite speakers from Leiden University and elsewhere to give a presentation on their o... more
In the China Seminar/Lecture series every three weeks, Leiden University Chinese Studies invite speakers from Leiden University and elsewhere to give a presentation on their ongoing research.
Dates & Topics
26|09 Professor Ge Jianxiong (Fudan University)
04|10 Jeroen de Kloet (University of Amsterdam)
18|10 Christopher Rea (The University of British Colombia)
01|11 Ching-Ling Wang (Rijksmuseum)
15|11 Daniel Stumm (Leiden University)
07|12 James Benn (McMaster University)
13|12 Rongdao Lai (University of Southern California)
Time & Place
Chinese Studies, Leiden Institute for Area Studies
Different locations in Leiden
Since 1969, Europalia has organised some twenty-four festivals. Each has turned the spotlight on one culture in a comprehensive programme of music, fine arts, photography, cin... more
Since 1969, Europalia has organised some twenty-four festivals. Each has turned the spotlight on one culture in a comprehensive programme of music, fine arts, photography, cinema, theatre, dance, literature, architecture, design, fashion, gastronomy...
Europalia together with the Indonesian team are now fully engaged in developing the festival programme. EUROPALIA INDONESIA will run from 10 October 2017 to 21 January 2018 and will present Indonesian traditions and contemporary culture (with a special attention for creation and exchange) in numerous events.
What do you know about India? Demonstrate and enrich your knowledge in the India Pubquiz on October 26. Leiden University, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and th... more
What do you know about India? Demonstrate and enrich your knowledge in the India Pubquiz on October 26.
Leiden University, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Embassy of India organise a pubquiz together to celebrate the warm relations between India and the Netherlands. 2017 marks an extraordinary year for all of us as we celebrate the Leiden Asia Year, the opening of the Asian Library, 70 years of Indian independence, as well as 70 years of bilateral ties between India and the Netherlands.
The pubquiz will not only feature questions on India from a wide range of themes, but also participants from a wide variety of backgrounds. Are you interested in India and do you want to expand your social and professional network in a fun and playful way? Do not miss out on this unique event where knowledge, competitiveness, diplomacy, and fun meet: join us on October 26 in the India Pubquiz!
The India Pubquiz will last from 17.00hrs – 19.30hrs, starting off with an official welcome in the University Library, followed by a short guided tour through the Asian Library, and subsequently the pubquiz itself in Café Noord.
Sign up by sending an email to DAO-AFPAK@minbuza.nl
During the Leiden Asia Year, more than ever, Asia will be a part of the Leiden film experience. From 27 October - 5 November the Leiden International Film Festival (LIFF) will... more
During the Leiden Asia Year, more than ever, Asia will be a part of the Leiden film experience. From 27 October - 5 November the Leiden International Film Festival (LIFF) will bring you, as part of their extensive program, the very best Asian cinema has to offer. The 2016 edition screened pre-premières of Korean horror hit The Wailing and the beautifully animated Japanese film Miss Hokusai, among others. For Chinese cinema, the festival saves a special section of its program. This section, called Reel China, screens the year’s biggest Chinese blockbusters - seen by millions in their homeland, but hardly known beyond the Chinese borders. Finally, the best, most beautiful and strangest offerings of Japanse cinema have their own place in the spotlight thanks to a cross-cultural collaboration between LIFF and Japan Museum Het SieboldHuis.
The exact Asian films that will be screened during LIFF 2017 will remain undisclosed for now, but it’s safe to say that Asian cinema will flourish on Leiden’s silver screens this year. The festival program will be fully disclosed by mid-October, by which time the program guide as well as other information can be found on the website of Leiden Film Festival.
Picture: Coen Bastiaanssen
Is Chinese the world’s most difficult language? And how many Chinese characters are there? Discover facts and fables about Chinese language and script at the China theme d... more
Is Chinese the world’s most difficult language? And how many Chinese characters are there? Discover facts and fables about Chinese language and script at the China theme day at the Taalmuseum in Leiden on 29 October at BplusC.
This year, Leiden’s key focus is on Asia. In terms of Asian languages, there is one thing that immediately catches your attention: they often have their own type of script. This makes it difficult for us to understand the language, and it leads to all kinds of myths, such as that Asian languages are more difficult to understand than European languages. The Taalmuseum and BplusC are joining forces on Sunday 29 October to show visitors the wealth of Chinese language traditions and writing culture.
You can attend a speed lecture to find out about the languages of China and what there is to see and do in Leiden on the theme of China. Three experts will tell you about their research areas and about the relationship between language and characters, about Chinese both inside and outside China, and about design and development.
For centuries, Chinese calligraphy has been one of the most important expressions of Chinese art and culture. At the theme day you can take part in a free workshop on Chinese calligraphy given by Cara Yuan. Using a Chinese calligraphy brush, she will teach you the principles of this art form. There will be two workshops, one for adults and one for children.
Leiden and China
For more than 150 years, Leiden University has been the place in the Netherlands for knowledge of Chinese languages and cultures. This long tradition will be the basis for an exhibition.
The China theme day will take place on 29 October from 13.00 to 17.00 hrs. If you want to make sure you have a place, sign up now via email@example.com
Visit www.taalmuseumleiden.nl/china for the complete programme.
Lunch will be provided, registration is required. In the last two decades a lot has changed in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. After centuries of Portuguese colonia... more
Lunch will be provided, registration is required.
In the last two decades a lot has changed in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. After centuries of Portuguese colonialism and 24 years of Indonesian occupation, the Timorese were finally able to vote for their independence in 1999. In retaliation, the Indonesian army destroyed most of the country’s infrastructure, especially in Dili, during their violent withdraw. Since then, the reconstruction of the country in general, and the capital Dili in particular, has been a mirror of the social, legal and economic problems of the country, as well as the political influences and views of modernity held by the Timorese elites. Resettlement of refugees and IDPs, land tenure uncertainty and disputes, urban growth, natural resources windfall, patronage and clientelism, and high-modernism views have shaped the ways and forms in which the city has been reconstructed. Through a number of different case studies, this presentation debates how the interaction of these different elements plays out in reconstruction and urban change in a context such as the Timorese.
Bernardo Almeida (Van Vollenhoven Institute of Leiden University School of Law) is a development and legal professional, with special focus on land-related legislation. His main country of work is Timor-Leste, where he lectured property rights at the national university and worked for five years as a Ministry legal advisor for the land sector. Bernardo also worked before in Afghanistan with UNDP and UN Habitat. Currently he is writing his PhD thesis of the Van Vollenhoven Institute of Leiden University Law School (Netherlands), focusing on describing the development of the formal land tenure system in Timor-Leste.
Time: 12.30 - 14.00 hrs
Please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org if you would like to attend this lunch lecture.
1 November - China Seminar: On a Newly Discovered Sea Fish Album (Haiyu tu, 1736) and the Formation of Knowledge in the 18th Century China
This lecture introduces a special newly discovered See Fish Album (Haiyu tu, 1736), composed by a local officer in Guandong in the collection of Museum für Asiatische Kunst... more
This lecture introduces a special newly discovered See Fish Album (Haiyu tu, 1736), composed by a local officer in Guandong in the collection of Museum für Asiatische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Illustrated books or albums of animals, birds, plants, fish, foreigners and aboriginals have emerged in the 18th century China. Such albums or books were commissioned to be made in the court and as well in local by the educated elites. The speaker will survey this album by putting into its pictorial context and historical context, through a detailed exam of the making of the See Fish Album to discuss issues of the formation and transmission of knowledge in the 18th century China.
Dr. Ching-Ling Wang (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam)
15.15 - 17.00 h.
The 17th Informal ASEM Seminar on Human Rights will take place from the 7th until the 10th of November 2017 in Sofia, Bulgaria and focus on the theme of... more
The 17th Informal ASEM Seminar on Human Rights will take place from the 7th until the 10th of November 2017 in Sofia, Bulgaria and focus on the theme of "Human Rights and Children". Prof. Dr Ton Liefaard, Professor of Children’s Rights and UNICEF Chair in Children’s Rights at Leiden University, Leiden Law School, will act as one of the seminar’s main rapporteurs.
This Seminar series is co-organised by the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF), the Raoul Wallenberg Institute (nominated by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs and the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. The 17th Informal ASEM Seminar on Human Rights will be hosted by the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Indian sisters Nonni (79), Son (71) and Titi (75) spend their last days in a service flat. With their corresponding habits and worn relationships, they live inextricably i... more
The Indian sisters Nonni (79), Son (71) and Titi (75) spend their last days in a service flat. With their corresponding habits and worn relationships, they live inextricably in a tropical cocoon. Nonni has not been out for years "I've got corns, hence," Son is sickly dependent on her sisters "but tomorrow I'm going to go linedancing" and Titi will soon marry Andre, but then his wife must die first. Then suddenly a book appears with pictures of their youth in former Dutch india ... The past gets stirred up and the relationship between the sisters will be under pressure. A tragicomic portrait of three sisters who struggle not only with themselves and with each other but also with their colonial background and past.
Director: Paul Knieriem
Writer: Bodil de la Parra
With: Nadja Hüpscher, Bodil de la Parra, Esther Scheldwacht
Tickets: For tickets please visit the website of the Theatre.
Language: This theatre-performance is in Dutch.
The Leiden Academic Art Centre (LAK) organizes artistic courses in the field of dance, writing, photography, fine arts, singing, theatre and body&mind) for students of Le... more
The Leiden Academic Art Centre (LAK) organizes artistic courses in the field of dance, writing, photography, fine arts, singing, theatre and body&mind) for students of Leiden University and other interested groups. In spring and fall of 2017 LAK organizes workshops with a focus on Asian culture. The workshops are practiced-based and aim to learn skills to the attendees. LAK seeks cooperation with Leiden Asia Centre and students and staff members of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indonesian Studies.
The following courses will be organized:
* Washi: paper making in Japanese style
* Manga drawing
* Bollywood dance
* Indonesische dance
* Chinese calligraphy
* Chi Kung
* Wabi sabi (the art of imperfection)
* Haiku writing
* Painting in Chinese style
* Chinese poetry
11-19 November - Von Siebold in search of the real East Asia: musical exploration with Leiden’s Het Zingend Hart
For many centuries, East Asia has attracted western scientists like a magnet. On Deshima, peninsula off the coast near Nagasaki, the famous Leiden-based surgeon-major Philip... more
For many centuries, East Asia has attracted western scientists like a magnet. On Deshima, peninsula off the coast near Nagasaki, the famous Leiden-based surgeon-major Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796-1866) experienced the happiest years of his life. His western knowledge of medicine enabled him to cure Japanese patients. In return, he received Japanese artefacts, plants and animals. It resulted in a world-famous collection, nowadays on show in the Leiden Japan Museum SieboldHuis. Von Siebold lectured in Nagasaki, lived with a Japanese woman, was admitted to the capital Edo (forbidden territory for foreigners), and secretly produced maps of Japan. Then his luck turned. He was accused of espionage.
In November 2017, a colourful performance will revive Von Siebold’s story. The Leiden chamber choir Het Zingend Hart, conducted by Guido van Swieten, will vocalize and re- enact Von Siebold’s dramatic walk of life with matching Japanese, Chinese and Indonesian songs (by composers such as Osamu Shimizu and He Lüting). Some oriental texts and themes (such as Balinese kecak) will sound to music by western composers. Thus, the audience will relive Von Siebold’s history to a caleidoscope of tunes honouring the rich cultures of East Asia. From authentic folk music to striking western orientalisms.
ようこそ, Yōkoso (be welcome!)
This performance will take place on:
- Saturday 11 November 2017, 20.00 hrs
- Sunday 12 November 2017, 15.00 hrs
- Saturday 18 November 2017, 20.00 hrs
- Sunday 19 November 2017, 15.00 hr
Venue: P.J. Veth building, which can be reached through the new main entrance on the side of the Hortus botanicus in Leiden (Rapenburg 73).
Directed by: Nicoline van de Beek, Ton van Kempen and Eva van der Weerd
Conductor: Guido van Swieten
Production: Coby van der Weerd
With Arie Pos as Philipp Franz von Siebold
In cooperation with dancing group Raiden Yosakoi and students Hiyori Suzuki, Raudya Amalia, Rani Krisnamurthi, Sangqiao Li and Her Gao.
Songs in original languages, spoken texts in Dutch.
World premiere of “Kexi”, a composition by Guido van Swieten.
Book a seat at this event in Leiden’s Asia Year. Tickets are available through email@example.com. A regular ticket can be purchased at € 15; discount tickets for children under 12 and students (student ID to be shown at the entrance) are available for € 10. A ticket includes one coffee or tea. The number of ticket is limited so do not wait too long to book your ticket!
The annual open stage of BplusC in 2017 is full with Asian cultural performances, as storytellers, Indonesian dancing group, music acts, Raiden Yosakoi dancing group, and pupp... more
The annual open stage of BplusC in 2017 is full with Asian cultural performances, as storytellers, Indonesian dancing group, music acts, Raiden Yosakoi dancing group, and puppet theatre.
Recently academic programs increasingly focus on the negative sides of VOC history. During this symposium experts will give an analysis of their new insights. What is the curr... more
Recently academic programs increasingly focus on the negative sides of VOC history. During this symposium experts will give an analysis of their new insights. What is the current state of research? How can this be helped forward by a non-western approach? And where will it go – or does it need to go – in the future?
National Archives, Leiden University and Leiden Asia Year invite you to join them at this excitatory symposium to attend a variety of lectures, discussions and a round table on various subjects seen from new perspectives.
Because of the digitisation of the VOC Archives, the National Archives of the Netherlands are showcasing the Dutch East India Company in 2017.During the symposium, you are welcome to visit their exhibition on the VOC too.
You can register for this symposium via this link.
To view the full programme please visit the programme-page
8 December - Salawat Dulang: Sinar Barapi & Kilek Barapi - Trance-like vocals and percussion from West Sumatra, Indonesia
Salawat dulang is a religious muic style from Minangkabau, an area in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Two vocalists sing a kind of sufi lyrics while at the same time beating a brass... more
Salawat dulang is a religious muic style from Minangkabau, an area in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Two vocalists sing a kind of sufi lyrics while at the same time beating a brass tray. But mostly the chanting goes beyond sufi texts, all kind of stories are being improvised by the singers. The two singers sometimes sing together, sometimes allternately, while developing a trance-like cadence by the percussion rhythms on their brass trays.
Salawat dulang are usually performed at weddings, circumcissions, religious and national holidays. For Minang audience, where the tradition is being practiced, they prefer salawat dulang performed alternately by two pairs, in a kind of battle. In this case, each pair would create and improvise stories. The theme depends on the occasion in which salawat dulang is being performed.
Also tonight two pairs of artists will play alternately, Sinar Barapi and Kilek Barapi. Salawat dulang is traditionally performed all night long, but here it will be approximately 60 minutes. 🙂
Before the performance Dr. Suryadi will give an introduction in english. Dr. Suryadi himself is from Minangkabau and works at Leiden University. He has written a lot about music from West Sumatra, and he will give the audience more cultural and musical context.
The music of Sinar Barapi & Kilek Barapi is also on youtube. You can listen to one of their songs by visiting Youtube.
Entrance: 15 (door) / 12.50 (pre sale, via internet only)
This concert is organised together with Europalia Indonesia Arts Festival.
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Leiden Asia Year 2017/2018: Leiden Celebrates ASIA, come and join us!
Leiden University is renowned throughout the world for its top-class expertise on Asia, brought together in its teaching and research. In September 2017 the University will open its new Asian Library, an internationally recognised centre of expertise on Asia, that will assemble under one roof all the University’s collections on the region, making them accessible to students, researchers and other interested parties. The opening of the Asian Library will be one of the key events of the Leiden Asia Year 2017.
The aim of the Leiden Asia Year 2017 is to put Leiden (the city, its museums and the University) more firmly on the international map as one of the world’s leading knowledge hubs on Asia, covering research, teaching, collections and expertise. In close collaboration with the municipality of Leiden, the museums and other organisations and partners in the city, the University will be organising symposia, conferences, lectures and exhibitions in the city throughout 2017, all on the theme of Asia.
Leiden University is one of the oldest and most respected centres in the Western world for the study of Asia. It is the only university in the Netherlands that offers an extensive programme in the languages and cultures of the Asian region. The programme can take the form of a broad study of the region with the focus on a specific region (China, Japan, Korea, India and Tibet, or Indonesia) or a study that takes a comparative perspective. Our Asian Library is unique, in terms of both the breadth and depth of its collection. The Indonesia collection, for example, is the most extensive of its kind in the world, and our Sinology collection is one of the largest in the Western world.
The collections contain rare and valuable items, including manuscripts, books, maps, photos and prints. With this impressive library collection that has been amassed over a period of centuries, its top-quality teaching, and research focusing on and informed by the interaction between traditions and modernity, the University attracts students and researchers interested in Asia from all parts of the world.
The Asia Year will be given a strong national and international profile so that all parties who are interested in Asia, researchers and relevant partners worldwide will be aware that throughout 2017 Asia will be the focus of attention in Leiden. The University and partners hope that the Leiden Asia Year 2017, with its broad range of interesting activities for different target groups, will attract large numbers of visitors to the city.
The faculties, institutes and University library already organise a diverse range of activities every year on the theme of Asia. Next year, these activities will be brought together under the flag of the Leiden Asia Year. Besides these specific Asia activities, in 2017 Asia will be the theme for all the regular annual events organised by the University (Dies Natalis, opening of the Academic Year, 3 October University, Cleveringa lectures, the remit of the Cleveringa professor, the Huizinga lecture and many others). And finally – together with partners from the city of Leiden – special events will be set up to mark the opening of the New Asian Library in September 2017.
To travel to one of the Leiden Asia Year events, it is preferable to use public transport.
To get there by train
To get there by car
Leiden University Libraries
Witte Singel 27 - Leiden
T +31 71 527 2800
Office address organisation
If institutions and/or private persons might have any claims on the reproduction rights of the illustrations on this website, they are requested to contact Rosalien van der Poel (email to: firstname.lastname@example.org )
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The aim of the Leiden Asia Year 2017 is to put Leiden more firmly on the international map as one of the world’s leading knowledge hubs on Asia.
The aim of the Leiden Asia Year 2017 is to put Leiden more firmly on the international map as one of the world’s leading knowledge hubs on Asia.
The aim of the Leiden Asia Year 2017 is to put Leiden more firmly on the international map as one of the world’s leading knowledge hubs on Asia.